HISTORY of the JEWS - I:


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52. Abraham / Isaac named Beersheba. [H, 417]
(Like father, exactly like son)

GEN 20:1, And Abraham ...sojourned in Gerar. 2 And Abraham said of Sarah his wife, She is my sister: ... 9 Then Abimelech called Abraham, and said unto him, What hast thou done unto us? ...

GEN 21:31, Wherefore he called that place* Beersheba; because there they sware both of them. 32 Thus they made a covenant at Beersheba: (KJV)
GEN 26:6, And Isaac dwelt in Gerar: 7 And the men of the place asked him of his wife; and he said, She is my sister: for he feared to say, She is my wife; lest, said he, the men of the place should kill me for Rebekah; because she was fair to look upon. ... 10 And Abimelech said What is this thou hast done unto us? ... 28 And they said, We saw certainly that the LORD was with thee: and we said, Let there be now an oath betwixt us, even betwixt us and thee, and let us make a covenant with thee; ... 33 And he called it Shebah: therefore the name of the city* is Beersheba unto this day. (KJV)

* One apologist makes a distinction between what was named by Abraham and by Isaac. Abraham called the "place" Beersheba, whereas Isaac named the "city" Beersheba. The claim is that using two different words indicates two different locations, so there is no contradiction. Now consider this: GEN 28:18, "And Jacob rose up early in the morning, ... 19 And he called the name of that place Bethel: but the name of that city was called Luz at the first." Genesis 28:19 clearly uses both words to refer to the same location. - p.b./p>



53. God was first known as Jehovah before / after Abraham. [H, 421]

GEN 4:26, And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enos: then began men to call upon the name of the LORD [YHWH].

GEN 9:24, And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his younger son had done unto him. 25 And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren. 26 And he said, Blessed be the LORD God [Adonai YHWH] of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant.

GEN 22:14, And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovahjireh: as it is said to this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen.

[SEE ALSO:GEN 12:8, 26:25]


EXO 6:2-3, And God spake unto Moses, and said unto him, I am the LORD: And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty [El Shaddai], but by my name JEHOVAH [YHWH] was I not known to them.



54. Keturah was Abraham's wife / concubine. [B, 94]

GEN 25:1, Then again Abraham took a wife, and her name was Keturah.
1CHR 1:32, Now the sons of Keturah, Abraham's concubine: ....



55. Abraham was justified by faith / works.

ROM 4:2, For if Abraham were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory; but not before God. 3 For what saith the scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness.

HEB 11:17, By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up Isaac: and he that had received the promises offered up his only begotten son
JAM 2:21, Was not Abraham our father justified by works, when he had offered Isaac his son upon the altar? ... 24 Ye see then how that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only.



56. There were 11 / 12 / 13 tribes of Israel.


TRIBES of ISRAEL GEN 29:31 to 30:24 GEN 46:8-27 GEN 49:3-27 EXO 1:2-5 NUM 10:14-27 NUM 26:5-51 NUM 34:16-29, 35:1-8 DEU 33:6-24 JUDG 1:17-36 JUDG 5:14-23 1CHR 2:1-2 1CHR 6:54-80 REV 7:4-8
3 DAN X X X X X X X X X X X    
4 GAD X X X X X X   X     X X X
6 JOSEPH X X X X   X X X X X X   X
8 LEVI X X X X X   X       X X X
10 REUBEN X X X X X X   X   X X X X
11 SIMEON X X X X X X X   X   X X X
13 MANASSEH         X   X X X     X X
14 EPHRAIM         X   X X X X   X  
15 BARAK                   X      
16 MACHIR                   X      
17 GILEAD                   X      
18 MEROZ                   X      


Note that ASHER, NAPHTALI, and ZEBULUN are the only tribes mentioned in every verse of the table.

GEN 29:31--30:24 names twelve offspring, but omits Benjamin and includes daughter Dinah:

GEN 46:8-27 names twelve tribes. These are the traditional twelve:
Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Gad, Asher, Joseph, Benjamin, Dan, Naphtali.

GEN 49:3-27 names the same twelve tribes as GEN 46.

EXO 1:2-5 names the same twelve as GEN 46 and 49.

NUM 10:14-27 names twelve tribes breaking camp in the Sinai after the exodus. They include: Manasseh and Ephraim but not Joseph. The tribe of Levi is not named, but verse 21 states: "And the Kohathites set forward, bearing the sanctuary: and the other did set up the tabernacle against they came." Kohath was the son of Levi, and caring for the sanctuary and tabernacle were traditional tasks of the Levites. So by this reference, thirteen tribes are included.

NUM 26:5-51 names eleven sons of Jacob, the same ones as GEN 46 and 49, and EXO 1, minus Levi.

NUM 34:16-29; 35:1-8 God told Moses to divide the land among ten tribes, and give a portion of each to Levi. Joseph is missing and his sons,. Reuben and Gad are missing also.

DEU 33:6-24 names twelve tribes. Simeon and Levi are missing. Joseph and his sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, are all named separately.1

JUDG 1:17-36 names eleven tribes: Reuben, Gad, Levi and Issachar are omitted; Manasseh, Ephraim, and Joseph are all named separately.

JUDG 5:14-23 names eleven tribes in the Song of Deborah. This is the most unusual list of all:
Barak, Ephraim, Benjamin, Machir, Zebulun, Issachar, Reuben, Gilead, Dan, Asher, Zebulun, Naphtali, Meroz.
Four are new (Barak, Machir, Gilead and Meroz, mentioned only in these verses) and five are missing (Simeon, Levi, Judah, Manasseh and Gad).2

2SAM 19:43 mentions elevenribes when talking about the breakup of Solomon's kingdom, but does not name them.
And the men of Israel answered the men of Judah, and said, We have ten parts in the king, and we have also more right in David than ye: why then did ye despise us, that our advice should not be first had in bringing back our king? And the words of the men of Judah were fiercer than the words of the men of Israel.

1KIN 11:31 also mentions eleven tribes when talking about the breakup of Solomon's kingdom, and does not name them.
And he said to Jeroboam, Take thee ten pieces: for thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel, Behold, I will rend the kingdom out of the hand of Solomon, and will give ten tribes to thee: 32 (But he shall have one tribe for my servant David's sake, and for Jerusalem's sake, the city which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel:)

1CHR 2:1-2 names the same twelve tribes as those in GEN 46, 49, & EXO 1.

1CHR 6:54-80 names twelve tribes, including Joseph's sons Ephraim and Manasseh, and omitting Joseph and Dan.

REV 7:4-8 names twelve tribes, but omits Dan and includes Manasses as well as Joseph.3

¹ "Traditionally, when referring to the House of Israel as a unified entity, the Twelve Tribes include Levi and count Joseph as one tribe, but when describing Israel on the basis of territorial distribution, Levi is omitted and Joseph counts as two tribes [i.e., Manasseh and Ephraim]." - Gary Greenberg, 101 Myths of the Bible, 111.
² "The Song of Deborah names eleven political entities, three of whom do not bear names of sons of Jacob: Gilead, Machir, and Meroz. It also omits five tribal groups descended from Jacob: Simeon, Levi, Judah, Manasseh, and Gad. ... Meroz, which name appears only in this passage of the Bible." - Greenberg, 159-160.
"[JUDG] 5,23: Meroz. an unknown locality in which Hebrews probably resided, since its inhabitants are cursed for their failure to proffer aid." - NAB, 222 (footnote).
"[JUDG] 5, 14-22: Praise for the tribes which formed the Israelite league against Sisera: Ephraim, Benjamin, Manasseh (represented by Machir), Zebulun, Issachar, and Naphtali (led by , The tribes of Reuben, Gad (Gilead), Dan and Asher are chided for their lack of co-operation. The more distant tribes of Judah and Simeon are not mentioned." - NAB, 221 (footnote).
NUM 32:29, And Moses said unto them, If the children of Gad and the children of Reuben will pass with you over Jordan, every man armed to battle, before the LORD, and the land shall be subdued before you; then ye shall give them the land of Gilead for a possession ... 32:33 And Moses gave unto them, even to the children of Gad, and to the children of Reuben, and unto half the tribe of Manasseh the son of Joseph, the kingdom of Sihon king of the Amorites, and the kingdom of Og king of Bashan, the land, with the cities thereof in the coasts, even the cities of the country round about.
³ "[REV] 7, 5-8: ... Dan is omitted because of a later tradition that the antichrist would arise from it." - NAB, 1380 (footnote).



57. Jacob got the birthright by purchase / deception. [H, 345]

GEN 25:31, And Jacob said, Sell me this day thy birthright. 32 And Esau said, Behold, I am at the point to die: and what profit shall this birthright do to me? 33 And Jacob said, Swear to me this day; and he sware unto him: and he sold his birthright unto Jacob.
GEN 27:18, And he came unto his father, and said, My father: and he said, Here am I; who art thou, my son? 19 And Jacob said unto his father, I am Esau thy firstborn; I have done according as thou badest me: arise, I pray thee, sit and eat of my venison, that thy soul may bless me. ... 26 And his father Isaac said unto him ... 28 Therefore God give thee of the dew of heaven, and the fatness of the earth, and plenty of corn and wine: 29 Let people serve thee, and nations bow down to thee: be lord over thy brethren, and let thy mother's sons bow down to thee: cursed be every one that curseth thee, and blessed be he that blesseth thee.



58. Jacob's errand was to escape Esau's anger / take a wife. [H, 345]

GEN 27:42, And these words of Esau her elder son were told to Rebekah: and she sent and called Jacob her younger son, and said unto him, Behold, thy brother Esau, as touching thee, doth comfort himself, purposing to kill thee. 43 Now therefore, my son, obey my voice; and arise, flee thou to Laban my brother to Haran; 44 And tarry with him a few days, until thy brother's fury turn away; 45 Until thy brother's anger turn away from thee, and he forget that which thou hast done to him: then I will send, and fetch thee from thence: why should I be deprived also of you both in one day?
GEN 28:2, And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him, and charged him, and said unto him, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan. 2 Arise, go to Padanaram, to the house of Bethuel thy mother's father; and take thee a wife from thence of the daughters of Laban thy mother's brother.



59. Esau's wives included Judith / Mahalath / Adah / Aholibamah. [H, 336]

GEN 26:34, And Esau was forty years old when he took to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Bashemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite: ... 28:9 Then went Esau unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives which he had Mahalath< the daughter of Ishmael Abraham's son, the sister of Nebajoth.
GEN 36:2, Esau took his wives of the daughters of Canaan; Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite; 3 And Bashemath Ishmael's daughter, sister of Nebajoth.



60. Jacob did / did not give Bethel its name.

GEN 28:18, And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. 19 And he called the name of that place Bethel: but the name of that city was called Luz at the first.
GEN 12:7, And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said, Unto thy seed will I give this land: and there builded he an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him. 8 And he removed from thence unto a mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, having Bethel on the west, and Hai on the east: and there he builded an altar unto the LORD, and called upon the name of the LORD.

GEN 13:1, And Abram went up out of Egypt, he, and his wife, and all that he had, and Lot with him, into the south. 2 And Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold. 3 And he went on his journeys from the south even to Bethel, unto the place where his tent had been at the beginning, between Bethel and Hai;



61. Jacob renamed Luz to Bethel before / after visiting Padanaram.

GEN 28:18, And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. 19 And he called the name of that place Bethel: but the name of that city was called Luz at the first.

GEN 33:18,And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Padanaram; and pitched his tent before the city.

GEN 35:6, So Jacob came to Luz, which is in the land of Canaan, that is, Bethel, he and all the people that were with him. 7 And he built there an altar, and called the place Elbethel: because there God appeared unto him, when he fled from the face of his brother.



62. Luz was / was not renamed Bethel.

GEN 28:18, And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. 19 And he called the name of that place Bethel:but the name of that city was called Luz at the first.

JUDG 1:23, And the house of Joseph sent to descry Bethel. (Now the name of the city before was Luz.)
JOS 16:1, And the lot of the children of Joseph fell from Jordan by Jericho, unto the water of Jericho on the east, to the wilderness that goeth up from Jericho throughout mount Bethel, 2 And goeth out from Bethel to Luz, and passeth along unto the borders of Archi to Ataroth,



63. Jacob's name was changed to Israel at the river Jabbok / Elbethel.
64. Jacob's name was / was not changed to Israel permanently.

GEN 32:22, And he rose up that night, and took his two wives, and his two women servants, and his eleven sons, and passed over the ford Jabbok*. ... 28 And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: for as a prince hast thou power with God and with men, and hast prevailed.

GEN 35:7, And he built there an altar, and called the place Elbethel*: because there God appeared unto him, when he fled from the face of his brother. ... 10 And God said unto him, Thy name is Jacob: thy name shall not be called any more Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name: and he called his name Israel.

GEN 46:2, And God spake unto Israel in the visions of the night, and said, Jacob, Jacob. And he said, Here am I.

*The river Jabbok runs through Gad, east of the Jordan river, nearly 30 miles north of Jerusalem. Elbethel (Bethel / Luz; see GEN 35:6) is west of the Jordan about 5 miles north of Jerusalem. (Source: OAB, Map 2). See also: Canaan after conquest. - p.b.



65. Joseph was / was not bound while in prison. [H, 348]

GEN 39:20, And Joseph's master took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the king's prisoners were bound: and he was there in the prison. ... 40:3 And he put them in ward in the house of the captain of the guard, into the prison, the place where Joseph was bound.
GEN 39:21-22, But the LORD was with Joseph, and shewed him mercy, and gave him favour in the sight of the keeper of the prison. And the keeper of the prison committed to Joseph's hand all the prisoners that were in the prison; and whatsoever they did there, he was the doer of it.



66. Jacob's family had 70 / 75 members when they came into Egypt. [H, 389]

GEN 46:26, All the souls that came with Jacob into Egypt, which came out of his loins, besides Jacob's sons' wives, all the souls were threescore and six; 27, And the sons of Joseph, which were born him in Egypt, were two souls: all the souls of the house of Jacob, which came into Egypt, were threescore and ten.*

[SEE ALSO: EXO 1:5 and DEU 10:22]

ACT 7:14, Then sent Joseph, and called his father Jacob to him, and all his kindred, threescore and fifteen souls.

*"...seventy descendants of Jacob are named on the occasion of Israel's going into Egypt, though some of them were dead at that time, others had not yet been born; ..." - Catholic Encyclopedia, "Genealogy."



67. Benjamin was a child / father when his clan migrated to Egypt.

GEN 43:15, And the men took that present, and they took double money in their hand, and Benjamin; and rose up, and went down to Egypt, and stood before Joseph. ... 44:20 And we said unto my lord, We have a father, an old man, and a child of his old age, a little one; and his brother is dead, and he alone is left of his mother, and his father loveth him. ... 22 And we said unto my lord, The lad cannot leave his father: for if he should leave his father, his father would die.
GEN 46:8, And these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt, Jacob and his sons: Reuben, Jacob's firstborn. 9 And the sons of Reuben; Hanoch, and Phallu, and Hezron, and Carmi. ... 21 And the sons of Benjamin were Belah, and Becher, and Ashbel, Gera, and Naaman, Ehi, and Rosh, Muppim, and Huppim, and Ard.



68. Joseph's brothers found the hidden money at home / an inn.

GEN 42:29, And they came unto Jacob their father unto the land of Canaan, and told him all that befell unto them; ... 35 And it came to pass as they emptied their sacks, that, behold, every man's bundle of money was in his sack: and when both they and their father saw the bundles of money, they were afraid.
GEN 42:27, And as one of them opened his sack to give his ass provender in the inn, he espied his money; for, behold, it was in his sack's mouth.

GEN 43:21, And it came to pass, when we came to the inn, that we opened our sacks, and, behold, every man's money was in the mouth of his sack, our money in full weight: and we have brought it again in our hand.



69. Zebulun's territory did / did not reach to the sea.

GEN 49:13  Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea; and he shall be for an haven of ships; and his border shall be unto Zidon.
JOS 19:11, And their border went up toward the sea, and Maralah, and reached to Dabbasheth, and reached to the river that is before Jokneam;*

* Jokneam was well inland. Asher controlled the land between Zebulun and the Mediterranean. (Source: OAB, Map 5) See also: Division of the Promised Land.



70. Jacob's last act was to ask for burial with his fathers / bless Joseph's sons.
71. Jacob died leaning upon the head of the bed / top of his staff. [H, 345]

GEN 47:29-31, And the time drew nigh that Israel must die: and he called his son Joseph, and said unto him, If now I have found grace in thy sight, put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh, and deal kindly and truly with me; bury me not, I pray thee, in Egypt: But I will lie with my fathers, and thou shalt carry me out of Egypt, and bury me in their burying place. And he said, I will do as thou hast said. And he said, Swear unto me. And he sware unto him. And Israel bowed himself upon the bed's head.
HEB 11:21, By faith Jacob, when he was a dying, blessed both the sons of Joseph; and worshipped, leaning upon the top of his staff.



72. Jacob was to be brought out of / died in Egypt. [H, 345]

GEN 46:2, And God spake unto Israel in the visions of the night, and said, Jacob, Jacob. And he said, Here am I. ... 4 I will go down with thee into Egypt; and I will also surely bring thee up again: and Joseph shall put his hand upon thine eyes.
GEN 49:33, And when Jacob had made an end of commanding his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and yielded up the ghost, and was gathered unto his people ... 50:6 And Pharaoh said, Go up, and bury thy father, according as he made thee swear.



73. Jacob was buried in Machpelah / Sychem.*
74. Jacob was buried in a sepulchre bought from Ephron / the sons of Emmor.
75. Jacob / Abraham bought the sepulcher from the sons of Hamor.* [B, 96; H, 357]

GEN 50:13, For his sons carried him into the land of Canaan, and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah [near Hebron], which Abraham bought with the field for a possession of a burying place of Ephron the Hittite, before Mamre.

ACT 7:15-16, So Jacob went down into Egypt, and died, he, and our fathers, And were carried over into Sychem [Shechem], and laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum of money of the sons of Emmor the father of Sychem.

JOS 24:32, And the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel brought up out of Egypt, buried they in Shechem, in a parcel of ground which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor the father of Shechem for an hundred pieces of silver: and it became the inheritance of the children of Joseph.

*The NAB agrees that this is a "discrepancy." (footnote, p. 1178)




© R. Paul Buchman 2010-2011