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76. The Israelites were many / few in Egypt. [H, 344]

EXO 1:8, Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph. 9 And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we:
DEU 7:7 The LORD did not set his love upon you, nor choose you, because ye were more in number than any people; for ye were the fewest of all people:



77. Moses did / did not fear Pharaoh. [B, 62, H, 424]

EXO 2:14-15, And he said, Who made thee a prince and a judge over us? intendest thou to kill me, as thou killedst the Egyptian? And Moses feared, and said, Surely this thing is known. Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to slay Moses. But Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh, and dwelt in the land of Midian: and he sat down by a well.

[SEE ALSO: EXO 4:19; ACT 7:29]

HEB 11:27, By faith he forsook Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king: for he endured, as seeing him who is invisible.



78. Moses' wife was a Midianite / an Ethiopian. [H, 339]

EXO 2:16, Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters: and they came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father's flock. ... 21 And Moses was content to dwell with the man: and he gave Moses Zipporah his daughter.
NUM 12:1, And Miriam and Aaron spake against Moses because of the Ethiopian woman whom he had married: for he had married an Ethiopian woman.



79. An angel / God appeared to Moses in the burning bush.

EXO 3:2, And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed. 3 And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.
EXO 3:4, And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of themidst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I.



80. Moses was / was not eloquent.

ACT 7:22, And Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was mighty in words and in deeds.
EXO 4:10, And Moses said unto the LORD, O my Lord, I am not eloquent, neither heretofore, nor since thou hast spoken unto thy servant: but I am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue.



81. The Israelites did/ did not listen to Moses. [H, 344]

EXO 4:31, And the people believed: and when they heard that the LORD had visited the children of Israel, and that he had looked upon their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshipped.
EXO 6:9, And Moses spake so unto the children of Israel: but they hearkened not unto Moses for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage.



82. Aaron / the Lord / Pharaoh hardened the Pharaoh's heart. [B, 60]

EXO 7:11-13, Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers: now the magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments. For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents: but Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods. And he hardened Pharaoh's heart, that he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.
EXO 10:20, But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go.
EXO 8:15, But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite, he hardened his heart, and hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.



83. Three different sets of the ten plagues.

  EXODUS 7 - 12 PSALMS 78 PSALMS 105
1 blood (7:20) 78:44 105:29
2 frogs (8:6)   105:30
3 lice (8:17)   105:31
4 flies (8:24) 78:45 105:31
5 murrain* (9:3)    
6 boils (9:10) 78:50 (pestilence**)

7 thunder, hail, fire (9:23) 78:48 105:32
8 locusts (10:13) 78:46 105:34
9 darkness (10:22)   105:28
10 firstborn killed (12:29) 78:51 105:36
11   frost (78:47) 105:33
12   evil angels (78:49)  
* "2. archaic: a plague or crop blight." - Concise OED, 10th Ed.
** "archaic: a fatal epidemic disease, especially bubonic plague." - Concise OED, 10th Ed.



84. All the water in Egypt was / was not turned to blood. [H, 434]

EXO 7:20 And Moses and Aaron did so, as the LORD commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood. 21 And the fish that was in the river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the water of the river; and there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt.
EXO 7:22 And the magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, neither did he hearken unto them; as the LORD had said. ... 24 And all the Egyptians digged round about the river for water to drink; for they could not drink of the water of the river.



85. God slew all / some of Egypt's cattle. [B, 61; H, 428]

EXO 9:6, And the LORD did that thing on the morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt died:
EXO 12:29, And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.



86. Hail destroyed all / some herbs and trees.

EXO 9:25 And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and beast; and the hail smote every herb of the field, and brake every tree of the field.
EXO 10:14 And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of Egypt: very grievous were they; before them there were no such locusts as they, neither after them shall be such. 15 For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they did eat every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and there remained not any green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through all the land of Egypt. [Italics added. - p.b.]



87. The Israelites' sojourn in Egypt was 400 / 430 / less than 350 years. [H, 418]

ACT 7:6, And God spake on this wise, That his seed should sojourn in a strange land; and that they should bring them into bondage, and entreat them evil four hundred years.
EXO 12:40-41, Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.
GEN 46:8, And these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt, Jacob and his sons: ... 11 And the sons of Levi; Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.

EXO 6:18 And the sons of Kohath; Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel: and the years of the life of Kohath were an hundred thirty and three years.

EXO 6:20, And Amram took him Jochebed his father's sister to wife; and she bare him Aaron and Moses: and the years of the life of Amram were an hundred and thirty and seven years.

EXO 7:7 And Moses was fourscore years old, and Aaron fourscore and three years old, when they spake unto Pharaoh.

[NOTE: 133 (Kohath) + 137 (Amram) + 80 (Moses) = 350. Since Kohath was born before entering Egypt, and because Kohath and Amram were likely to have been younger than their ages at death when they reproduced, we know that by this computation, the sojourn was less than 350 years. - p.b.]
[SEE ALSO: Myth #72 in 101 Myths of the Bible (p.193) for other possible durations. - p.b.]



88. It was / was not 430 years from Abraham's covenant to Moses' law.

GAL 3:16, Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many, but as of one, which is Christ. 17 And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of more effect.
EXO 12:40, Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. 41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.


GEN 21:5, Abraham was an hundred years old when his son Isaac was born unto him.
GEN 25:26, And after that came his brother out, and his hand took hold on Esau's heel; and his name was called Jacob: and Isaac was threescore years old when she bare them.
GEN 25:7, And these are the days of the years of Abraham's life which he lived, an hundred threescore and fifteen years.

So, according to GEN 21 and 25, Abraham was 160 when Jacob was born (100 + 60), and he lived a total of 175 years.
Therefore, Jacob was 15 when Abraham died, and could not have had grandchildren at that time.
But, according to GEN 46, Jacob did have grandchildren when he entered Egypt:

GEN 46:5, And Jacob rose up from Beersheba: and the sons of Israel carried Jacob their father, and their little ones, and their wives, in the wagons which Pharaoh had sent to carry him. 6 And they took their cattle, and their goods, which they had gotten in the land of Canaan, and came into Egypt, Jacob, and all his seed with him: 7 His sons, and his sons' sons with him, his daughters, and his sons' daughters, and all his seed brought he with him into Egypt.

This means that Abraham died before Jacob went to Egypt, because he died when Jacob was 15, and Jacob had grandchildren when he went to Egypt.
According to GAL 3:16-17, the law was given to Moses 430 years after God made the covenant with Abraham. If Abraham had been dead awhile before Jacob went to Egypt, and the Israelites stayed in Egypt 430 years, then

(a) the law was given before Moses left Egypt,
(b) or the covenant with Abraham to the giving of the law must have been more than 430 years,
(c) or the Israelites stayed in Egypt less than 430 years.

We know that the law was given to Moses after he had left Egypt (see EXO 20), so (a) is not possible.
Yet, b) is contradicted by GAL 3:15, and (c) is contradicted by EXO 12:40-41 (both quoted above).

- p.b.]



89. God used Moses / wind / Wisdom [Sophia] / nothing else to part the Red Sea.

EXO 14:15 And the LORD said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward: 16 But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea.
EXO 14:21, And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind sea dry land, and the waters were divided. (KJV)
WIS 10:18 She took them across the Red Sea and brought them through the deep waters. (NAB)
NEH 9:11, And thou didst divide the sea before them, so that they went through the midst of the sea on the dry land; and their persecutors thou threwest into the deeps, as a stone into the mighty waters.



90. The Israelites had no / some water after leaving Egypt.

EXO 15:22, So Moses brought Israel from the Red sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water. 23 And when they came to Marah, they could not drink of the waters of Marah, for they were bitter: therefore the name of it was called Marah. 24 And the people murmured against Moses, saying, What shall we drink?
EXO 19:14, And Moses went down from the mount unto the people, and sanctified the people; and they washed their clothes.



91. There were 22,000 / 22,300 / 23,000 Levites. [H, 382]

NUM 3:39, All that were numbered of the Levites, which Moses and Aaron numbered at the commandment of the LORD, throughout their families, all the males from a month old and upward, were twenty and two thousand.
NUM 3:22 Those that were numbered of them, according to the number of all the males, from a month old and upward, even those that were numbered of them were seven thousand and five hundred. ... 28 In the number of all the males, from a month old and upward, were eight thousand and six hundred, keeping the charge of the sanctuary. ... 34 And those that were numbered of them, according to the number of all the males, from a month old and upward, were six thousand and two hundred.

[NOTE: 7,500 + 8,600 + 6,200 = 22,300 – p.b.]

NUM 26:62, And those that were numbered of them were twenty and three thousand, all males from a month old and upward: for they were not numbered among the children of Israel, because there was no inheritance given them among the children of Israel.



92. The Israelites' condition in the desert was / was not comfortable. [H, 340]

DEU 2:7, For the LORD thy God hath blessed thee in all the works of thy hand: he knoweth thy walking through this great wilderness: these forty years the LORD thy God hath been with thee; thou hast lacked nothing....

DEU 32:13, He made him ride on the high places of the earth, that he might eat the increase of the fields; and he made him to suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the flinty rock; 14 Butter of kine, and milk of sheep, with fat of lambs, and rams of the breed of Bashan, and goats, with the fat of kidneys of wheat; and thou didst drink the pure blood of the grape.
EXO 16:2, And the whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness: ... 8 And Moses said, This shall be, when the LORD shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the LORD heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against him: and what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against the LORD.

NUM 11:4, And the mixt multitude that was among them fell a lusting: and the children of Israel also wept again, and said, Who shall give us flesh to eat? 5 We remember the fish, which we did eat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlick: 6 But now our soul is dried away: there is nothing at all, beside this manna, before our eyes.



93. God will / will not accompany the Israelites.

EXO 33:14, "I myself," the LORD answered, "will go along, to give you rest." (NAB)
EXO 33:2-3, "... I will send an angel before you to the land flowing with milk and honey. But I myself will not go up in your company, because you are a stiff-necked people; otherwise I might exterminate you on the way." (NAB)



94. God / An angel went before the Israelites.

EXO 13:21 And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night:

EXO 16:10 And it came to pass, as Aaron spake unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud.
EXO 14:19 And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them:

EXO 23:20 Behold, I send an Angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. 21 Beware of him, and obey his voice, provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions: for my name is in him. 22 But if thou shalt indeed obey his voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto thine adversaries. 23 For mine Angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites: and I will cut them off.



95. The Lord's tabernacle was / was not made before the first day of the first month. [H, 396]

EXO 33:7, And Moses took the tabernacle, and pitched it without the camp, afar off from the camp, and called it the Tabernacle of the congregation. And it came to pass, that every one which sought the LORD went out unto the tabernacle of the congregation, which was without the camp.
EXO 40:1, And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 2 On the first day of the first month shalt thou set up the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation. ... 17 And it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month, that the tabernacle was reared up. 18 And Moses reared up the tabernacle, and fastened his sockets, and set up the boards thereof, and put in the bars thereof, and reared up his pillars. 19 And he spread abroad the tent over the tabernacle, and put the covering of the tent above upon it; as the LORD commanded Moses.



96. Moses did / did not see God's face.

EXO 33:11, And the LORD spake unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend.
EXO 33:18, And he said, I beseech thee, shew me thy glory. ... 20 And he said, Thou canst not see my face: for there shall no man see me, and live.



97. Moses received the ten commandments at Mt. Sinai / Mt. Horeb. [H, 376]

EXO 19:18, And mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly. ... 25 So Moses went down unto the people, and spake unto them. 20:1 And God spake all these words, saying, 2 I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. 3 Thou shalt have no other gods before me. [etc.]
DEU 4:10,12-13, Specially the day that thou stoodest before the LORD thy God in Horeb, ... 12 And the LORD spake unto you out of the midst of the fire: ye heard the voice of the words, but saw no similitude; only ye heard a voice. 13 And he declared unto you his covenant, which he commanded you to perform, even ten commandments; and he wrote them upon two tables of stone.

[NOTE: Some scholars think that Mt. Sinai and Mt. Horeb may have been the same mountain. See Kugel, 359 (footnote), and OAB, Map 3. - p.b.]



98. The law was given to Moses by God / by angels through a mediator.

EXO 19:20, And the LORD came down upon mount Sinai, on the top of the mount: and the LORD called Moses up to the top of the mount; and Moses went up. ... 20:22, And the LORD said unto Moses, Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel, Ye have seen that I have talked with you from heaven.
GAL 3:19, Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator.



99. There are two different sets of the ten commandments.
(Scratch that—I meant "The Seventeen Commandments.")


EXO 20:2-17 &
DEU 5:6-21
EXO 34:13-28 MAT 19:17-19 MAR 10:19 LUK 18:20
2 NO IMAGES X X      
10 DON'T COVET X        
19 DON'T DEFRAUD**       X  

* from LEV 19:18

** from LEV 19:13



100. God will / Moses did write the second set of ten commandments.

EXO 34:1, And the LORD said unto Moses, Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first: and I will write upon these tables the words that were in the first tables, which thou brakest.
EXO 34:27, And the LORD said unto Moses, Write thou these words: for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel.



101. The Israelites knew / did not know the ten commandments.

EXO 19:25, So Moses went down unto the people, and spake unto them.

EXO 20:1, And God spake all these words, saying, 2, I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. 3 Thou shalt have no other gods before me...[etc.]. 18 And all the people saw the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the noise of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking: and when the people saw it, they removed, and stood afar off. 19 And they said unto Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear: but let not God speak with us, lest we die. (KJV)
LEV 24:11, This man ... cursed and blasphemed the LORD's name. So the people brought him to Moses, 12 who kept him in custody till a decision from the LORD should settle the case for them. (NAB)

NUM 15:32, While the Israelites were in the desert, a man was discovered gathering wood on the sabbath day. 33 Those who caught him at it brought him to Moses and Aaron and the whole assembly. 34, But they kept him in custody, for there was no clear decision as to what should be done with him. (NAB)



102. Moses did / did not wear a veil when addressing the people. [H, 355]

2COR 3:7, Now if the ministry of death, carved in letters on stone, was so glorious that the Israelites could not look intently at the face of Moses because of its glory that was going to fade, ... 13 and not like Moses, who put a veil over his face so that the Israelites could not look intently at the cessation of what was fading. (NAB)
EXO 34:33, When he finished speaking with them, he put a veil over his face. 34 Whenever Moses entered the presence of the LORD to converse with him, he removed the veil until he came out again. On coming out, he would tell the Israelites all that had been commanded. 35 Then the Israelites would see that the skin of Moses' face was radiant; so he would again put the veil over his face until he went in to converse with the LORD. (NAB)



103. The men of the exodus were / were not alive 38 years later. [M, 349]

DEU 5:3 The LORD made not this covenant with our fathers, but with us, even us, who are all of us here alive this day.
DEU 2:14 And the space in which we came from Kadeshbarnea, until we were come over the brook Zered, was thirty and eight years; until all the generation of the men of war were wasted out from among the host, as the LORD sware unto them.




© R. Paul Buchman 2010-2011